I learned how to program using TRS-80 Level I BASIC, a 4K implementation adapted from Palo Alto Tiny BASIC. I later used other Tiny BASIC implementations on the PC-1, Astrocade, and Apple II, not realizing how their origin stories converged. (The Apple II’s 4K implementation, Integer BASIC, was written by Woz, who knew many of the Tiny BASIC implements from the Homebrew Computer Club.) I’ve been expanding the Tiny BASIC Wikipedia article this summer to reflect its rich history. Here’s what I contributed to the article.

Tiny BASIC is a family of dialects of the BASIC programming language that can fit into 4 or fewer KBs of memory. Tiny BASIC was designed in response to the open letter published by Bill Gates complaining about users “pirating” Altair BASIC, which was sold for $150. The Tiny BASIC language was specified first and then programmers were invited to implement it for different microprocessors and to share their source code openly. Dr. Li-Chen Wang, author of Palo Alto Tiny BASIC, coined the term “copyleft” to describe this. Tiny BASIC is an example of a free software project that existed before the free software movement. Community response to Tiny BASIC was so overwhelming that what had been planned as three newsletters was relaunched as Dr. Dobb’s Journal, the first regular periodical to focus on microcomputer software, which lasted in print form for 34 years.

The small size and free source code made these implementations invaluable in the early days of microcomputers in the mid-1970s, when RAM was expensive and typical memory size was only 4 to 8 KB.

To meet these strict size limits, Tiny BASIC dialects were typically different from other implementations of BASIC in key ways:

  • The source code was available for free as type-in programs
  • Math was purely integer based
  • Only 26 variables, named A to Z, were available; RUN did not necessarily reset these variables to zero
  • The arguments of IF and GOTO could be numeric expressions:
    • IF executed its subsequent statement on any non-zero value
    • GOTO and GOSUB could take an expression rather than a line number, providing an assigned GOTO rather than the switch statement of the ON-GOTO/GOSUB structure more typical of BASIC.

As this was a community call for BASIC implementations, anyone could create a Tiny BASIC dialect, and the dialects varied widely in language structure. Some truncated keywords, some allowed abbreviations, some offered nonstandard ways of accessing RAM to work around the lack of arrays and string handling.

Tiny BASIC implementations are still used today, for programming microcontrollers such as the Arduino.

The overall design for Tiny BASIC was published in the September 1975 issue of the People’s Computer Company (PCC) newsletter, along with the intermediate language source code. The newsletter provided references to compiler texts, and singled out UIUC BASIC.[1] In June 1974, Alfred Weaver, Michael Tindall, and Ronald Danielson of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign had proved it was possible to produce “A BASIC Language Interpreter for the Intel 8008 Microprocessor,” in their paper of the same name, though their application was deployed to an 8008 simulator for the IBM 360/75 and required 16kB.[2]

Implementations of Tiny BASIC that met and often exceeded the design criteria were soon being forwarded to the PCC, most notably Tiny BASIC Extended by Dick Whipple and John Arnold which ran in 3K of RAM, added FOR…NXT loops, and allowed a single numeric array. The duo wrote Tiny BASIC Extended directly in machine code, using octal.[1]

Palo Alto Tiny BASIC was adapted for the Sharp PC-1211 handheld computer. Other Tiny BASIC implementations were later developed for programmable calculators, but modern calculator BASICs differ widely from Tiny BASIC, with unique syntax and many additional functions. A last vestige of Tiny BASIC in these implementations is the restriction of variable names (A-Z and one array, Z, in Casio BASIC, similar to TI-BASIC, which adds numbered strings and lists).

Tiny BASIC was designed to use as little memory as possible, and this is reflected in the paucity of features as well as details of its interpreter system. Early microcomputers lacked the RAM and secondary storage for a BASIC compiler, which was more typical of timesharing systems.

Like most BASICs of the era, Tiny Basic was interactive with the user typing statements into a command line. As microcomputers of the era were often used with teletype machines or “dumb” terminals, direct editing of existing text was not possible and the editor instead used takeout characters, often the backslash, to indicate where the user backed up to edit existing text.

This syntax, as simple as it was, added one innovation: GOTO and GOSUB could take an expression rather than just a line number, providing an assigned GOTO[3] rather than the switch statement of the GOTO/GOSUB ... OF ..., a structure then supported in HP Time-Shared BASIC and predating ON ... GOTO. The syntax allowing IF-THEN statement (as opposed to just a line number to branch to) was not yet supported in Dartmouth BASIC as this time but had been introduced by Digital[4] and copied by Microsoft.

Contents

Implementation in a virtual machine

The Design Note specified a virtual machine, in which the Tiny BASIC interpreter is itself run on a virtual machine interpreter. The designer’s idea to use an application virtual machine goes back to Val Schorre (with META II, 1964) and Glennie (Syntax Machine). The choice of a virtual machine approach economized on memory space and implementation effort, although the BASIC programs run thereon were executed somewhat slowly.[5]

Dialects that used the virtual machine included Tiny BASIC Extended, Tom Pittman’s Tiny BASIC[6] and NIBL. Other dialects such as Denver Tiny BASIC (DTB) and Palo Alto Tiny BASIC were direct interpreters. Some programmers, such as Fred Greeb with DTB, treated the IL program as pseudocode for the algorithm to implement in assembly language; Denver Tiny BASIC did not use a virtual machine, but it did closely follow the IL program.

This is a representative excerpt from the 120-line IL program:

S1:  TST     S3,'GO'       ;GOTO OR GOSUB?
     TST     S2,'TO'       ;YES...TO, OR...SUB
     CALL    EXPR          ;GET LABEL
     DONE                  ;ERROR IF CR NOT NEXT
     XFER                  ;SET UP AND JUMP
S3:  TST     S8,'PRINT'    ;PRINT.

A common pattern in the program is to test for a keyword or part of a keyword, then act on that information. Each test is an assertion as to what is next in the line buffer. If the assertion fails, control jumps to a subsequent label (usually looking for a new keyword or token). Here the system advances its buffer cursor over any spaces and tests for GO and if it fails to find it then jumps to line S3. If it finds it, execution continues with the next IL command. In this case, the system next tests for TO, skipping to line S2 if it fails (a test for SUB, to see if this is instead a GOSUB command). If it passes, control continues; in this case, calling an IL subroutine that starts at label EXPR, which parses an expression. In Tiny BASIC, GOTO X*10+100 (a computed GO TO) is as legal as GOTO 100 and is the alternative to the ON-GOTO of larger BASIC implementations. The subroutine EXPR pushes the result of the expression onto the arithmetic stack (in this case, the line number). DONE verifies no other text follows the expression and gives an error if it does. XFER pops the number from the stack and transfers execution (GOes TO) the corresponding line number, if it exists.

The following table gives a partial list of the 32 commands of the virtual machine in which the first Tiny BASIC interpreter was written.[7]TST lblstringIf string matches the BASIC line, advance cursor over string and execute the next IL instruction; if the test fails, execute the IL instruction at the label lblCALL lblExecute the IL subroutine starting at lbl; save the IL address following the CALL on the control stackDONEReport a syntax error if after deleting leading blanks the cursor is not positioned to reach a carriage returnXFERTest value at the top of the AE stack to be within ranqe. If not, report an error. If so, attempt to position cursor at that line. If it exists, begin interpretation there; if not, report an error.JUMP lblContinue execution of the IL at the label specifiedRTNReturn to the IL location specified at the top of the control stackPRSPrint characters from the BASIC text up to but not including the closing quotation markPRNPrint number obtained by popping the top of the expression stackSPCInsert spaces to move the print head to next zoneNLINEOutput a CRLF[8] to the printer

Tom Pittman, discussing the IL, says: “The TINY BASIC interpreter was designed by Dennis Allison as a recursive descent parser. Some of the elegant simplicity of this design was lost in the addition of syntactical sugar to the language but the basic form remains. The IL is especially suited to Recursive Descent parsing of TINY BASIC because of the general recursive nature of its procedures and the simplicity of the TINY BASIC tokens. The IL language is effectively optimized for the interpretation of TINY. Experience has shown that the difficulty of adding new features to the language is all out of proportion with the nature of the features. Usually it is necessary to add additional machine language subroutines to support the new features. Often the difficulty outweighs the advantages.”[9]

Deviations from the design

Defining Tiny BASIC for the Homebrew Computer Club, Pittman wrote, “Tiny BASIC is a proper subset of Dartmouth BASIC, consisting of the following statement types only: LET, PRINT, INPUT, IF, GOTO, GOSUB, RETURN, END, CLEAR, LIST, RUN. Arithmetic is in 16-bit integers only with the operators + – * / and nested parentheses. There are only the 26 single letter variable names A, B, …Z, and no functions. There are no strings or arrays… Tiny BASIC specifies line numbers less than 256.”[10] He then went on to describe his implementation: “This language has been augmented to include the functions RND, USR, and PEEK and POKE, giving the user access to all his system components in the 6800 from the BASIC program.”

Many implementers brought their own experiences with HP Time-Shared BASIC or DEC BASIC-PLUS to their designs and relaxed the formal Tiny BASIC language specification. Of the seven prominent implementations published by 1977:

  • All added some sort of random number function, typically RND().
  • All enabled LET to be optional and most let expressions in assignment statements contain relational operators.
  • All but 6800TB supported statement delimiters in lines, typically : although TBX used $ and PATB used ;.
  • In IF statements, all but MINOL removed the need for expressions to contain relational operators (e.g., IF X THEN LET Y=X was valid). The majority removed THEN, made it optional, or supported implied GOTO.
  • Many modified PRINT to support print zones, using , to go to the next zone and ; to not advance the cursor.
  • All but 6800TB and DTB added NEW.
  • All but 6800TB and MINOL added a function to return memory size: TBX had SZE, DTB and PATB had SIZE, L1B had MEM, and NIBL had TOP.
  • Four implementations added arrays, whether a single, undimensioned array in PATB and L1B or DIMensionable arrays in TBX and DTB.
  • Four implementations added the REMark statement.
  • Only PATB, NIBL, and L1B offered FOR-TO-STEP/NEXT, although TBX supported FOR 1,10$NXT.
  • Only NIBL had any nod towards structured programming, with DO/UNTIL, despite Allison’s lament in Issue 2 about problems with BASIC.

As an alternative to tokenization, to save RAM, TBX,[11] DTB,[12] and MINOL[13] truncated keywords: PR for PRINT, IN for INPUT, RET for RETURN. The full, traditional keywords were not accepted. In contrast, PATB allowed accepted traditional keywords but also allowed any keyword to be abbreviated to its minimal unique string, with a trailing period. For instance, PRINT could be typed P., although PR. and other variations also worked. This system was retained in Level I BASIC for the TRS-80, which used PATB, and was also later found in Atari BASIC and the BASIC of various Sharp Pocket Computers.[14]

Dialects

The most prominent dialects of Tiny BASIC were the original Design Note, Tiny BASIC Extended, Palo Alto Tiny BASIC, and 6800 Tiny BASIC. However, many other versions of Tiny BASIC existed.

List of prominent dialects

Tiny BASIC was first published in a newsletter offshoot of the People’s Computer Company, a newsletter which became Dr. Dobb’s Journal, a long-lived computing magazine. About ten versions were published in the magazine.

Date PublishedIssueDialectAuthorProcessorSize
December, 19751[15]Design NoteDennis AllisonN/AN/A
February, 19762[11]Tiny BASIC Extended (TBX)Dick Whipple & John Arnold80802.9K
March, 19763[12]Denver Tiny BASIC (DTB)Fred Greeb80802.75K
March, 19763[16]6800 Tiny BASIC (6800TB)Tom Pittman68002K[17]
April, 19764[13]MINOLEric T. Mueller80801.75K
May, 19765[18]Palo Alto Tiny BASIC (PATB)Li-Chen Wang80801.77K
November, 197610[19]National Industrial Basic Language (NIBL)Mark Alexander & Steve LeiningerSC/MP4K
October, 198049[20]Enhanced 6800 Tiny BASICRobert Hudson6800N/A
February, 1985100[21]TBI68KGordon Brandly68000N/A
January, 2006351[22]Return of Tiny BASICTom PittmanN/A (C)N/A

TBX was also known as Texas Tiny BASIC.[23]

Both SCELBAL[24] and 6800 Tiny BASIC were announced in the magazine but did not publish their source code.

Wang also wrote a STARTREK program in his Tiny BASIC that appeared in the July 1976 issue of the People’s Computer Company Newsletter.[25][26]

He later adapted the language into 3K Control Basic for Cromemco, adding variable names of the form letter-digit (e.g., A0 to Z9), logic functions (AND()OR()XOR()), a CALL command to execute machine language routines, more PRINT-formatting options, and others (GET() and PUT() instead of PEEK and POKE; I/O port functions).[27]

Palo Alto Tiny BASIC was adapted for many other implementations, including Level I BASIC (1977), BASIC for the Sharp PC-1211 pocket computer (1980), and Astro BASIC (1982, by Jamie Fenton).[28]

MINOL

Written by a junior in high school, MINOL was the only implementation that didn’t support the full Design Note, lacking operator precedence, having only three relops (<, =, #), omitting GOSUB and RETURN. It only supported unsigned 8-bit precision (in contrast to signed 16-bit precision for every other implementation) and line numbers from 0 to 254.

No spaces were permitted except in strings; ! returns a random number, $ before an expression loads a string at that address; OS returns to operating system. Memory was addressable as if it were a two-dimensioned array of high and low bytes (e.g., “(0,0)” to “(255,255)”); CALL calls a machine language subroutine.[13]

Miscellaneous dialects

Many dialects appeared in various other publications.The May 1977 issue featured a Floppy ROM containing MICRO-BASIC.

Inspired by PCC’s call for Tiny BASICs, Robert Uiterwyk wrote MICRO BASIC 1.3 for the SWTPC (a 6800 system), which SWTPC published in the June 1976 issue of the SWTPC newsletter. Uiterwyk had handwritten the language on a legal tablet. He later expanded the language to 4K, adding support for floating point; this implementation was unique among BASIC interpreters by using Binary Coded Decimal to 9 digits of precision, with a range up to 10E99, and by being published for free as a “Floppy ROM” magazine insert. An 8K version added string variables and trigonometry functions. Both the 4K and 8K versions were sold by SWTPC. In January, 1978, Uiterwyk sold the rights of the source code to Motorola.[29][30]

Thomas F. Waitman wrote a Tiny BASIC in 1976 for the Hewlett-Packard HP-2640 and HP-2645 terminals (which used the Intel 8008 and 8080 processors), which was published in the Hewlett-Packard Journal.

Published in the December 1976 issue of Interface Age was LLL (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory) BASIC, the first draft of which was developed by Steve Leininger from Allison’s specification before Leininger left National Semiconductor for Tandy Corporation. The final interpreter was developed by John Dickenson, Jerry Barber, and John Teeter at the University of Idaho on a contract with LLL. Taking 5K, it included a floating point package, developed by David Mead, Hal Brand, and Frank Olken. The program was placed into the public domain by LLL, which developed the system under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration.[31]

4K BASICs

Altair BASIC, 4K BASIC, could run within a 4kB RAM machine, leaving only about 790 bytes free for program code.[32][33] The Tiny BASIC initiative started in response to the $150 charge for Altair 4K BASIC.

In 1975, Steve Wozniak joined the newly formed Homebrew Computer Club, which had fellow members Li-Chen Wang (Palo Alto Tiny BASIC) and Tom Pittman (6800 Tiny BASIC). Wozniak concluded that his machine would have to have a BASIC of its own, which would, hopefully, be the first for the MOS Technology 6502 processor. As the language needed 4 kB RAM, he made that the minimum memory for the design.[34] Integer BASIC was originally published on Compact Cassette in 1976.

In 1977, Radio Shack (as it was known then) released their first computer, the TRS-80, a Z80 system with Level I BASIC in a 4kB ROM. Tandy-employee Steve Leininger had written the first draft of the NIBL (National Industrial Basic Language) interpreter for the SC/MP while employed at National Semiconductor[19] Unable to take that source code with him, he adapted Li-Chen Wang‘s Palo Alto Tiny BASIC for the original prototype of the TRS-80 Model I. He extensively revised the interpreter, adding floating-point support, simple black-and-white graphics, and READ/DATA/RESTORE statements.[35]

Originally developed in 1979, Sinclair 4K BASIC, written by John Grant, used as its language definition the 1978 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Minimal BASIC standard, but was itself an incomplete 4Kb implementation with integer arithmetic only.[36]

Microcontroller dialects

Tiny BASIC implementations have been adapted for processor control and for microcontrollers such as the Arduino:

  • Stephen A. Ness wrote XYBASIC for the Mark Williams Company in 1977, a 4K integer implementation. The language was often used for process control applications.[37]
  • Arduino BASIC – Adapted from Gordon Brandly’s 68000 Tiny BASIC, ported to C by Mike Field.
  • Tiny Basic Plus – Adapted from Arduino BASIC by Scott Lawrence.[38]
  • Half-Byte Tiny Basic – Adapted from Arduino BASIC.[39]
  • Tiny Basic on the Micro: Bit – Adapted from Palo Alto Tiny BASIC.[40]

Dialects compared

The following table compares the language feature of Tiny BASIC implementations against other prominent BASICs that preceded them.

Date
Published
DialectProgrammer(s)ProcessorTypeINPUTLETPRINTGOTOIF …THENGOSUBRETURNENDRUNLISTCLEARNEWREMFOR/NEXTREAD/DATA/RESTOREAdded BASIC commandsCustomizationsExpressionsrelopFunctionsRNDMemory FunctionLine numbersStatement delimiterErrorsPrecisionArithmeticVariablesArraysStrings
October,
1964
DTSS Dartmouth BASIC (version 2)[41](Dartmouth students)GE-225Compile-and-goN/A [!]LET var = expression;|}GO TO numberIF expression relop expression THEN line-numberGOSUB numberRETURNENDRUNLIST–startNEW [prompts for program name]REMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTREAD, DATAREAD, DATA, STOPN/Aprecedence, ^< <= = >= > <>INT, SIN, COS, TAN, ATN, EXP, LOG, ABS, SQR, DEF FNRND(0) 0..11 to 99999None22 defined9 digits±999,999,999; E notation base 2 -256 to +255 (E±76).A-Z, A0-Z9DIM (one letter name, two dimensions); if omitted, assumed to go from 0 to 10; up to 1500 elements across all arraysNone
February,
1970
DEC BASIC-8[42](DEC staff)PDP-8Compile-and-goINPUT var-listLET var = expression;|}GO TO numberIF expression relop expression [THEN/GO TO] line-numberGOSUB numberRETURNENDRUNLIST (first (, last))NEW [prompts for program name]REMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTREAD, DATA, RESTORESTOP, OLD, SAVE, UNSAVEDELETE (first (, last)), BYEprecedence, ^< <= = >= > <>INT, SGN, SIN, COS, TAN, ATN, EXP, LOG, ABS, SQR, DEF FNRND(0) 0..11 to 2045None23 defined?±134,217,727; 14E-38<N<1.7E38A-Z, AA-Z9DIM (one letter name, two dimensions)None
June,
1974
UIUC BASIC[43]Alfred Weaver, Michael Tindall, Ronald Danielson8008InterpreterINPUT <variable> {, <variable>}*LET var = formula<formula> {, <string> | <formula>}*GO TO numberIF expression THEN line-numberGOSUB numberRETURNENDRUNnot documentednot documentednot documentedREMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTDEF FN, STOPN/Aprecedence, ^< <= = >= > # AND OR NOTFNA..Z, SIN, COS, LOG, SQR, EXP, ATN0 to 999Nonenot documented4-byte mantissa and 1-byte exponent [Datapoint 2200 floating point arithmetic package]not documentedA-Z, A0-Z9DIM (one letter name, three dimensions)None
1975Altair 4K BASIC[44]Bill Gates, Paul Allen, Monte Davidoff8080InterpreterINPUT (“string”,) var-list(LET) var = expression;}GOTO numberIF expression THEN line-number/statementGOSUB numberRETURNENDRUNLIST (start)NEWREMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTREAD, DATA, RESTORESTOPprecedence< <= = >= > <>ABS, INT, SGN, SQR, TAB, USRRND(X) <0, new using X as seed; =0, repeat; >0, next1 to 65535:12 defined40 bit operand floating??DIM (one dimension)None
December,
1975
Design Note[45]Dennis AllisonN/AInterpreterINPUT var-listLET var = expressionPRINT expr-listGOTO expressionIF expression relop expression THEN statementGOSUB expressionRETURNENDRUNLIST[eq. to NEW]precedence< <= = >= > <> ><NoneNone1 to 255None8 defined16 bit± 32767A-ZNoneNone
February,
1976
Tiny BASIC Extended[46]Dick Whipple & John Arnold8080InterpreterIN(LET) var = expression;}GO TOIF expression [no THEN] statementGO SUBRETENDRUNLST (first (, last))NEWFOR-NXT (no STEP)DTA (array LET)precedence< <= = >= > <> ><TB() spaces in printRN (random 0-10000)SZE1 to 65535$14 defined16 bit± 32767A-ZDIM, 1- or 2-dimensions, 255×255 maxNone
March,
1976
Denver Tiny BASIC[47]Fred Greeb8080InterpreterIN(LET) var = expression;}GOTOIF expression [no THEN] statementGOSUBRETENDRUNLIST (first last)[eq. to NEW]TAPE [SAVE], LOADCLRS [CLS]precedence< <= = >= > <> ><RND(0), RND(1)SIZE2 to 255:20 defined16 bit± 32767A-Z, A1 to A6 to Z6DIM, 1 dimensionNone
March,
1976
6800 Tiny BASIC[48]Tom Pittman6800InterpreterINPUT (expression) var-listLET var = expression;}GOTO expressionIF expression relop expression THEN statementGOSUB expressionRETURNENDRUNLIST (first last)[eq. to NEW]REMprecedence< <= = >= > <> ><USR()RND()1 to 65535None53 defined16 bit± 32767A-ZNoneNone
April,
1976
MINOL[49]Eric T. Mueller8080InterpreterIN(LET) var = expressionPR expr-list {;}[GOTO 0 jumps back to start of direct statement]IF expression relop expression ; statementN/AN/AENDRUNLISTCLEAR [only variables]NEWNo spaces permitted except in stringsNo operator precedence< = #$ [CHR$]! [RND]1 to 254:6 defined8 bit0 to 255A-Z(H,L) memory locationsingle char
May,
1976
Palo Alto Tiny BASIC[50]Li-Chen Wang8080InterpreterINPUT [(expression) var]*(LET) var = expressionPRINT expr-listGOTO expressionIF expression [no THEN] statementGOSUB expressionRETURNSTOPRUNLIST (start)NEWREMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTSTOPprecedence< <= = >= > #ABS()RND()SIZE1 to 32767;3 defined16 bit± 32767A-Z@(1 array of 1 dimension)None
November,
1976
NIBL[51]Mark Alexander & Steve LeiningerSC/MPInterpreterINPUT ($)var(LET) var = expressionPR/PRINT expr-listGOTO expressionIF expression (THEN) statementGOSUB expressionRETURNENDRUNLIST (start)CLEAR [variables & stack]NEWREMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTDO/UNTILMemory addressing (@ [PEEK/POKE], STAT, PAGE)precedence< <= = >= > <>MOD(), AND, OR, NOT,RND(A,Z)TOP0 to 32767:13 four-char defined16 bit± 32767A-Zmemory addressingINPUT$, PRINT$, $exp=exp
August,
1977
Level I BASIC[52]Steve LeiningerZ80InterpreterINPUT (#digit) [(expression) var]*(LET) var = expressionPRINT (#digit) expr-listGOTO numberIF expression THEN statementGOSUB numberRETURNENDRUN (start)LIST (start)NEWREMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTREAD, DATA, RESTORESTOP, CONT, ON-GOTO/GOSUBCLOAD, CSAVE, CLS, SET, RESET,precedence< <= = >= > <> ><ABS(), INT(), MEM, POINT(X,Y)RND()MEM1 to 32767:3 defined16 bit± 32767A-ZA(1 array of 1 dimension)A$, B$
June,
1976
MICRO BASIC 1.3[53]Robert Uiterwyk6800InterpreterINPUT var-list(LET) var = expression;}GOTO expressionIF expression relop expression THEN statementGOSUB expressionRETURNENDRUNLIST (first (, last))NEWFOR/TO/NEXT (no STEP)TAB()precedence< <= = >= > <> ><RND, SIZERND [returns 1-32762]SIZE (statement that prints bytes used and bytes free)1 to 65535None17 defined16 bit [later BCD!]± 32767A-ZDIM (two dimensions, max size of 255)None
June,
1976
SCientific ELementary BAsic Language (SCELBAL)[54]Mark Arnold & Nat Wadsworth8008InterpreterINPUT var-list(LET) var = expression;|}GOTO numberTHEN statementGOSUB numberRETURNENDRUNLISTSCR[atch]REMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTSAVE, LOADUDF [USR]precedence, ^< <= = >= > <>INT, SGN, ABS, SQR, CHR [usable only in PRINT], TABRND(0) 0..11 to 999999None18 defined32 bit operand floating or fixed point±134,217,727; 14E-38<N<1.7E38?DIM (one letter name, one dimension; up to 4 arrays of up to 64 entries in total)None
October,
1976
Apple I BASIC[55]Steve Wozniak6502InterpreterINPUT (“string”,) var-list(LET) var = expression;}GOTO expressionIF expression relop expression THEN line-number/statementGOSUB expressionRETURNENDRUN (start)LIST (first (, last))SCRREMFOR/TO/STEP/NEXTAUTO, DEL, POKETAB (command), CALLprecedence< <= = >= > <> # AND OR NOT MODSGN, ABS, PEEK(), LEN()RND(X) 0..X (or X..0!)HIMEM, LOMEM1 to 32767None [early version, then :]16 defined16 bit± 32767A-Z followed by any number of alphanumericDIM (one dimension)dimensioned
December,
1976
LLL BASIC[56](University of Idaho staff)8080InterpreterINPUT var-list(LET) var = expression;}GO TO numberIF expression relop expression (THEN) statementGO SUB numberRETURNENDRUNLISTSCRREMFOR/TO/NEXT (no STEP)STOPCALL, GET(), PUT()precedence< <= = >= > <> ><No RND?0 to 32767:14 defined32 bit operand floating point?A-Z, A0-Z9DIM (integers only, one letter name, one dimension, max size of 255)None
  1. Jump up to:a b “TB Code Sheet”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics & Orthodontia, Running Light Without Overbyte1 (1). December 1975.
  2. ^ A BASIC Language Interpreter for the Intel 8008 Microprocessor. Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (published 1974). June 1974.
  3. ^ Allison, Dennis (1976). “Quick Reference Guide for Tiny BASIC”Dr. Dobb’s Journal. Vol. 1 no. 1. p. 6.
  4. ^ BASIC-PLUS Language Manual (PDF). Maynard, Massachusetts: Digital Equipment Corporation. 1972. pp. 3–13.
  5. ^ Allen, Dennis. “TINY BASIC”. People’s Computer Company4 (3).
  6. ^ Veit, Holger. “Tom Pittman’s 6800 tiny BASIC”. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  7. ^ Dr. Dobb’s Journal, Volume 1, Number 1, 1976, p. 12.
  8. ^ The CRLF there symbolizes a carriage return followed by a line feed.
  9. ^ Pittman, Tom. “Tiny BASIC Experimenter’s Kit”. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  10. ^ (PDF)https://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/access/text/2015/02/102740021-05-14-acc.pdf. Retrieved 13 Aug 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. Jump up to:a b “Tiny BASIC Extended”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics & Orthodontia, Running Light Without Overbyte1 (2). February 1976.
  12. Jump up to:a b “Denver Tiny BASIC”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics & Orthodontia, Running Light Without Overbyte1 (3). March 1976.
  13. Jump up to:a b c “MINOL”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics & Orthodontia, Running Light Without Overbyte1 (4). April 1976.
  14. ^ Rauskolb, Roger (December 1976). “Dr. Wang’s Palo Alto Tiny BASIC” (PDF). Interface Age. pp. 92–108.
  15. ^ “Design Note”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics & Orthodontia, Running Light Without Overbyte1 (1). December 1975.
  16. ^ “6800 Tiny BASIC”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics & Orthodontia, Running Light Without Overbyte1 (3). March 1976.
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